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      ByChenDaofu,ResearchInstituteofFinanceofDRCResearchReportNo178,2013(Total4427)Inrecentyears,themonetaryfinancehassplitapartfromtherealeconomyinChina,thusdramantothefieldswithlowoutputefficiency,suchasinfrastructure,sourcelonger,fectonthecapitalmarket,whicharerelatedtorelevantsystemsandmechanismsontherealeconomylevel,thedeficiencyofthetransformationandsupervisionofthefinancialsystem,,themonetaryfinanceandtherealeconomyhasbeensplitfartherandfartherapart,resultinginmoreandmoremonetaryfinanceinput,yeteswithlowoutputefficiencysuchasinfrastructure,realestateandovercapacity,,whichisnotmainlyduetotheguidanceofChina,furtherexacerbatingtheseparationofChinaspresentmonetaryfinancefromthecountry,obviousdistortionhasshowuponChinascapitalmarket,sheddinglightonthe"crowding–outeffect".rs,measuredbyactualoutput,theoutputstimulati(whichreferstotheexternalsourcesoffinanceobtainedbynon-financialbusinessesfromdomesticfinancialinstitutionsandmarkets,includingCNYloans,foreigncurrencyloans,entrustloans,discountbankacceptance,stockfinancing,bondfinancingandrelevantitems)andnewlyincreasedmonetarycredithavegrownrapidly,yetindicatorsreflectingeconomicgrowth(especiallydomesticdemand)~2008,,,(whichreferstothetimesofmoneycirculationwithinagivenperiod,generallyoneyear,weighedbythemeanvalueofGDP/currentM2),~2008,,duetotheoverlyeasymonetarypolicycarriedoutin2009,aswellasthedecreaseofthemonetaryoutputefficiency,thevelocityofmoneycirculationdroppedagainin2009and2012,,,thespeedofthemoneyincreasestillsurpassedthenominalspeedofGDPincrease,andtheratiocontinuestodecrease.--Ananalysisofeconomicsituationin2011andprospectsfor2012DRCTaskForceonAnalysisofEconomicPerformanceInthecontextofabigpressureofdomesticpriceriseandthecontinuousinternationaleconomicupheaval,theCPCCentralCommitteeandtheStateCouncil,bykeepingtothesetmacro-control,policyinlightofactualeconomicperformancewithaforward-lookingmannerandseekingbalanceinpricecontrol,smoothgrowthandstructuralreadjustment,haveeffectivelycontainedtheexcessivel,theworldeconomicsituationin2012wouldbecomesophisticatedand,asbigcountriesliketheUnitedStates,Germany,FranceandRussiawouldhavegovernmentelection,sdomesticdemandisalsounderthepressureofslowdown,andlatentriskshaveincreasedinsuchfieldsastherealestatemarket,theinvestmentandfinentmonetarypolicy,weneedtointensifytheelasticityandflexibilityofmacroeconomicpolicies,furtherreleasethevitalityandpotentialsofmicro-subjects,endeavortowardoffandmitigatevarioussortsofrisks,activelyexpeditetheinstitutionalreformandstructuralreadjustmentandstrivetoachievesubstinningof2011,thegovernmenthas,astheprimarytask,,economicperfo%forthewholeyearAffectedbysuchfactorsastheweakeningbaseeffect,theimprovingmonetaryconditionsandthedecliningpricesofstaplecommodities,%inJuly,upbyabout5%,,thebroadmoney(M2)%,yearonyear,thenarrowmoney(M1)%,yearonyear,%,yearonyear,makingitpossibletorealizeassche,,theglobaleconomicgrowthhassloweddownevidently,plusriskavoidanceonthemarket,theUSdollarhasreboundedshortly,pricesof,thefoodpricesh,,slightlyatover9%Inthefirst8months,investmentinthemanufacturingindustryandinrealestatemarketgrewrapidly,yetgrowthofinvestmentinsuchinfrastructurefacilitiesascommunicationsandelectricalpowersloweddownevidently,andthefixedassetinvestmentgrewby25%.Asvehicleandhousing-relatedconsumptiongrowthdeclinedmarkedly,,theslowdownoftheworldeconomicgrowthhasnotyetproducedremarkableinfluenceoverChina,%.Itispredictedthattheyearlyexportswillgrowby20%,themoderatedeclineofthegrowthoftheaggregatedemandsince2011hasbeenmainlyaresultofactivecontrolthroughmacro-economicpolicies,whichisbeneficialtocontrolling%inthefirsthalfoftheyear,%.,%,yearonyear,%.,makin%,playinganactiveroleinstabilizingthegrowtho,theoverallimplementationoftherestrictionpolicyonhousingpurchaseandthecollectionofpropertytaxonapiloingplatformshascontainedtheever-growingcreditrisksandlocalfinancialrisksrelatedtolandandrealestatesectors,playinga,urbanandruralareasaswellasinternalandexternalmarketshasbeenimprovedEconomicdevelop,GDPof18provincesandregionsgrewbymorethan13%,,provincesandregionswhoseGDPgr,theriseofpricesoffarmproduceandtheimplementationofvariousagriculture-friendlypolicies,%inthefirsthalfof2011,bei%,positivechangeshavetakenplaceinChinasinternationalmarketsharehasincreasedanditsexportstodevelopingcountrieshaveaccountedformorethan50%.AndthenumberofChinastradesurplushasdecreased,%orso,andthebalancebetweenimportandexporthasimproved. ByWeiJigang,ResearchDepartmentofIndustrialEconomyofDRCResearchReportNo47,2013(Total4296),butnotyetapowerfulcountryintermsoflogisticindustryLogisticindustryhasbecomeapillarindustryofthenationaleconomyandanimportantmodernserviceindustryafteroverthirtyyear,,%%,,,,,(standardcontaineroftwentyfootequivalentunit).,amongwhichrailwaygoodsdeliveryvolume,railwaygoodsturnovervolume,porthandlingcapacityandcontainerhandlingcapacityallrankedthefirstplaceintheworld,,,,amongwhichexpresswaywas96,000kilometer;theoperationalmileageofnationalrailwayswas98,000kilometer;innerhigh-gradewaterwaywas130,000kilometerandthemileageopentotrafficwas125,000kilometerwith1,819berthsabove10,000tonsand1,980deepwaterberthsatcostalports;(LPI)oftheWorldBank,ChinarunsaheadofotherBRICScountriesorotherAsi,Chinesel,Chinalogisticexpensestook18%inGDP,,internationallogisticenterprisesbegantoenterChina,internationallogisticenterprisesincludingFedEx,DHL,TNT,saccessiontotheWTO,,foreigncompaniescanestablishtheirownd,capital,technologiesandmanagements,internationallogisticenterpriseshavebeentransferringfromJVstowhollyforeign-ownedcompanies,fromasinglebusinesstocomprehensivelogisticbusinesses,fromfocusingonce,FedExsetupanAsianPacifictransithubatBaiyunAirportinGuangzhou;UPSsetupairtransithubinHongKong,ShanghaiandShenzhen;TNTsetupminitrans-shipmenthubinShanghai,BeijingandHongKong;oonomy,productivity,infrastructure,marketization,levelofinformationanddemands,logisticindustrydevelopsfastintheeasternregionbutslowlyinthecentralandwesternregions,,thepercentagesofexpressbusinessincomeintheeastern,%,%%%,%%.Logisticcompanies,facilitiesandactivitiesmostlycentralizedinlarg,thepercentageoftotallogisticamoun%%elopment,industrylogistinandhighdemandsontechnologiessuchashomeappliance,dailychemicalindustry,tobacco,medicine,automobile,chainretailande-commercehaveastrongdemandonlogisticswhilecapital-intensiveagriculturalproductsontheupstreamofindustrychainandbulkcommoditiesincludingagriculturecapital,steel,,logisticsystemandnetworkareunderdeveloped,mostofthemarescatteredanivetransportationhubconstruction,differenttransportationmethodscannotcooperateorconnectwitheachreasonablyandefficiently;costalandinlandtrafficsystemshavenotbeencoordinatedwitheachother,andinformationbetweenvarioustransportationmethodsarenotshared,thuslea%(whilethatindevelopedcountrieshasbeenupto20%).Logisticparksandlogistichubshavebeenbuiltinsomecitiesblindlyandsomeareleftinidle;Warehousingfacilitiesarescatteredindifferentindustriesanddepartmentswithoutanefficientresourcereassignment;palletstandardsarenotunified,impedingtheconsistentperformance;strongregionalprotectionanddepartmentsegmentationaswellasissuesrelatedtoindustryandcommerce,tax,landandtransportationsdepartme,astandardsupernatompliancewithrelevantregulationsandtheylackserviceconsciousness,,,,organization,,,aviation,railwayandwaterwayallfaceprominentproblemssuchasconsumptionofresources,,irrationaltraffic,andexcessivepackagearesevere;majorpersonalsafetyandgoodsdamageincidentsduetooverloadoroverspeedoccurfrequently,causinggreatlossestocompaniesandthecountry.皇家最新网址,Chinahasmadesignificantprogresstowardsfinancialsectorderegulationvialiberalizingbanklendingrates,expandingtheQFIIquota,increasingtheflexibilityoftheexchangerate,,includingbanklendingratesandexchangerates,arenowclosermarketequilibriums,andmarketm,Chinatructuralimbalancesduetooverregulations,Chinaneedsto:1)removecontrolsondepositrates;2)furtherincreasetheRMBsexchangerateflexibility;3)furtheropenupitscapitalaccount;and4)liberalizemarketaccesstothefinancialindustrybyremovingexcessiveandhavebeenwrittenintothethirdplenums"Decision",themostchallengingquestionishowtodesignthespecificreformprogramstbeonhighalertincludethefollowing,manyofwhichreflectlegacyissuesoftheoldsystem:,Chinaslocalgovernmentdebthasrisenquicklyinrecentyearstoabout32%,however,isthematuritymismatchbetweenlocalgovernmentliabilities(mostlyintheformofloansandtrustloans),thematurityofatypicalbankloanortrustloanis2-3years,whiletheprojectcashflowswillonlhtening,changeinprudentialregulationsonbanksandtrustcompanies,aswellasdeteriorationininvestorsentimentforwealthmanagementproducts(WMPs).InWesterncountries,theaveragematurityoflocalgovernmentdebtis7-10years,whichismuchclo,therewerenofailuresofbanksandtrustcompanies,andtherewereveryfewdefaultsofhighlyrisky(withriskssimilartojunkbondsinwesterncountries),trustcompaniesandWMPsareexceptionallystrong,butbecausemostofthesepoliticalsystemthatpenalieesofallbanks,trustcompaniesandWMPsleadtoincorrectpricingofcreditproductsissuedbysomeveryriskyborrowers,,,htsteptowardscorrectingthemispricing,,Chinasinterbankratesbecameveryvol,ahighvolatilityofinterestratestendstoconfusefinancialmarketparticipantsandcompaniesastowhatthemonetarypolicyintentionis,,asuddenspikeininterbankratescouldexacerbatethedurationriskf:theyhavedotowiththelackofcapacityinforecastingliquidity,lackofinter-governmentalcollaboration,theloan-to-depositratio,imprudentliquiditymanagementbybanks,shadowbankingactivities,aswellast,cross-bordercapitalflowsremainmanageableasformalcontrolsonQFIIandQDIIquotasremain,,assoonasthecapitalaccountisopen(,theQFIIandQDIIsystemsareabolished),large-scalecapitalinflowsand/oroutflowscouldleadtoexcessivevolatilityoftheexchangerate,destabilizethefinancialsystems,anddamagetherealeco"managedfloatingexchangerateregime",thevolatilityoftheRMB//7thatofMalaysianRinggit,1/13thatofKoreanwon,and1/,massiveinflowscouldresultifChinasbondmarketisopenedtoglobalinvestorsgiventhe2-3%interestratedifferentialbetweenChina)needtomovetowardsamoreliberalizationfinancialsystemsothattoimproveefficiency,and2)theneedtocontainanddefusetheabovementionedfinancialrisks,Chinats,alongwiththeplanedreformssuchasdepositratederegulationandcapitalaccountliberalization:,webelievethatakeyriskfacingthefinancialsystemistheexcessiverelianceoflocalgket,whichwillgraduallyreplaceloansandtrustloans,localgovernmentbondswithlongermaturitiesshouldaccountformorethan50%ofthefinancingsourcesforlocalgovernmentcapex(itisonly10%inChina).Tostartthereformprogram,Chinashouldmodifyitsbudgetlawtoallowindependentissuanceoflocalgovernmentbonds,establishacrediblecreditratingsystemforlocalgovernmentbonds,requirelocalgovernmentstopublishtheirbalancesheetsandmedium-termfinancialprojections,andestablishalegalframeworktoregulatetheapprovalprocedurebylocalpeople"manageddefaults".InaneconomyasbigasChina,afewfailuresofsmallbanksandafewdozendefaultsbyjunkbonds(orWMPs)peryearshouldbenormaland,indeed,,webelievethatregulatorsshouldpermitafewmoredefaultsofnon-standardWMPsintheremainderofthisyear,withsomemodestincreasesinthehaircut(fromthe7%haircutfortheCCTproduct)to,,10-20%.Theseeventsof"manageddefaults"maypotentiallypushupthefundingcostsby100-200bpsforhighlyriskyborrowers,buttheyarenecessaryforcontainingtheexcessiveborrowingviathetrustsector–bypricingoutsomeworstborrowers--andreducingsystemicrisks.ByChengGuoqiang,InformationCenterofDRCResearchReportNo134,2013(Total4383)heglobalagriculturaldevelopmentstrategymeanstocomprehensivelytakesuchstrategicmeasureslikedirecttrade,diversifiedimport,overseasagriculturalinvestmentandnew-typeinternationalcooperationinagriculture,activelytapglobalagriculturalresources,effectivelyuseinternationalagriculturalmarket,profoundlyintegratetheglobalindustrialchainofagriculturalproduction,processing,logistics,markingandtrade,andestablishasustainable,stableandsafeglobalagriculturalproductsupplynetworkcateringtothenationalgrainsecuritystrategy,withtheglobal-perspective-basednationalgrainsecuritystrategyasthebasicgoalandthebettercoordinat,itisastrategicdemandtoensuren,inonetotwodecadestocome,alongwiththeconstantprogressofindustrializationandurbanization,increasingpopulation,andupgradinggrainconsumptionstructurecausedbyhigherincome,China,thecontradictioncausedbyscarceragriculturalresources;inparticular,alongwithtightenedrestraintoflandandwaterresourcesanddegradingcomparativeadvantageofagriculture,theallocationofresourcefactorswillbeincreasinglyshifindtheconsumptiondemand,whileitisneitherpossiblenorrealis,pureself-sufficiencyofagriculturalproduceswouldrequireover3billionmu(15mumakeonehectare)ofsowingland,,presentingagapofabout20%whichcou,greatresource,environmentalandeconomiccostwouldbepaidfortheignoranceofthelargepopulationandscarcelandresourcesinChinaandover,strategicallyspeaking,itisunavoidabletoimportagriculturalproductsfromforeigncountriesanduseoverseasagriculturalresourcestoensurethenationalgrainsecurityandtheeffectivesupplyofmajoragriculturalproducts,anditisurgenttoformulateandimplementtheglobalagriculturalstrategyandestablishasustainable,,Chinashouldfurtheropenitsagriculturesectortotheousmoreactiveopenfields,improvethestructureandqualityofsuchfields,dimentofthefurtheropeningupofagricultureandani,overseasagriculturalinvestmentandcooperationaswellasotherstrategicmeasurescannotonlyfullytaptheagriculturalresourceadvantageoftheglobe,catertothestrategicbenefitsofcountrieswithrichagriculturalresources,especiallydevelopingcountries,promotedevelopingcountriestoimprovetheself-sufficiencyofgrainandagriculturalproductsandenhancetheircapabilitytodealwithgrainrisksandensuregrainsecurity,buttheyarealsosignificanttomaintainastableandsoundglobalgrainmarket,eliminatepovertyacrossthewo,theyareimportantmovestodevelopgood-neighborandfriendshiprelationswithothercountries,especiallywithneighboringcountriesandestablishanew-typeglobalgovernancestruct,thereareasoundinternationalagriculturalresourcesbasisandd,globalagriculturalresou,,includingmorethan1billionhectares1suitablerespectivelyforgrowingpaddy,wheat,cornandsoyabean,indicatingapotentialyieldgrowthof8%-10%.Thepotentialforwheatyieldgrowthismainlyfromdevelopedcountriesandtransitioneconomies,whilethatforpaddy,menttheglobalagriculturalstrategyanddestrategyistoestablishanationalgrainsecuritystrategicmechanismbasedontheglobalperspective,andconstructasustainable,,thefollow,theimprovementofthecompreovethegrainsupportandprotectionsystemasthecore,strengthenandimprovethegrainreservesystemasthekey,improvetheagriculturalproductimportandadjustmentmechanismasthesupplementandbuildthemoderngrainmarketsystemasthesupport,soastoensuretheself-sufficiency2ofpaddy,wheatandotherstablegrainandformanewnationalgrainsecurityframeworkfeaturing"settingfootathomeandseekingglobalsupply".Second,theagricultural"goglobal"strategyshouldbeimplementedtoencourageenterprisesofvariouskindstoincreasetheiroverseasagriculturalinvestmentandgetinvolvedininternationalagriculturaltradeandcooperation,exploreandformthediversifiedagriculturalproductimportadjustmentmechanism,andestablishasustainable,,theinternationalcooperationonagricultureshouldbedeepenedandexpanded,withthefocusonagriculturalaid3toandcooperativedevelopmentofagriculturalresourceswithdevelopingcountriesorregions,edcountrieswithabundantagriculturalresources,activelyparticipateintheircomprehensiveagriculturaldevelopmentandtheconstructionoftheglobalsupplychain,andincreasetheeffectivesupplyofglobalagriculturalproductsthroughdiverseways;anditshouldalsosparenoeffortstoadvocatetheconceptof"globalresponsibility"toprotecttherighttofood,holdthatmajoragriculturalresourcecountriesandmajoragriculturalproductsexportershouldshouldercorrespondingdutiesandresponsibilitiestomaintainstableagriculturalproductionandproductssupply,reducetheshockofbiomassenergyonthesupplyandpriceofagriculturalproductsintheglobalmarketandsafeguardthebasicrighttofoodforpeopleoftheworld.ByShiYaodong,ResearchDepartmentofIndustrialEconomyofDRCResearchReportNo180,2012(Total4182)Inadequateinnovationcapabilityoflargestate-ownedenterprises(SOEs)canbemainlyattributedto"fivelacks",namely,lackofstimulation,capabilities,experiences,reluctancetomadeinvestmentindifficultinnovationactivitieswhichinvolvelargeinvestment,highrisksandlonginvestmentrecoveryperiod,theyareoftenfoundto"bewellcapablebutpoorlystimulated".First,asthemajorplayerininnovationactivities,,,,,,,oncesucceed,canbringprofitsmuchhighe,especiallyleadingplayersinthemarket,duetoinadequatecompetitionpressure,mostofthemdonotfeelmuchpressureforsurvivalanddevelopment,,comparedwithotherenterprise,SOEsaremorelikelytoinvestinlow-riskandsophisticatedtechnologiesandproducts,andareparticularlyinclinedtoorganizemassiveproductionbyintroducingforeignproventechnologies,ratherthanconductingoriginalinnovationaciditiesinvolvinglargeinvestment,,entrepreneursarepersonalizedrepresentativesofenterpriseties,tlongsuchasstockincentivesmechanism;otherwise,entrepreneursmaychooseinnovationactivitiesinvolvinglowestrisks,forfearoffailureofexpensiveinnovationactivities,ortheymayputshareholdersecognizedsocialstatus,icials,whichisknownasthe"revolvingdoor"phenomenon,,socialstatusandsenseofhonorandfulfillmentlargelydependontheenterprisesize,growthrateandstability,,theRDemployeesarethosewhoconductinnovationactivities,andthestimulationforthesepe,theRDstaffhasthesamedemandforre,SOEsRDstaffreceivelowerremunerationlimitedbytheceilingontotalwages(thetotalwagesmaygrowannuallyaccordingtotheperformanceoftheyear,buttheincrementisusuallysmallerthaninforeign-fundedandprivateenterprises)verelyimpairedtheirenthusiasmininnovation,andtheyareinclinerivateenterprises,astheirRDstaffoftenma,,SOEshaveneverbeeninthesituationthatonlybyjointinnovationcantheysurviveanddevelop,,theconsiderabledisparityinstrengthconfinesthedesireforjointinnovation,whilelargeSOEsarereluctanttotitssharingandenterprisesounterpartsforinnovation.ByFanXuezhi,TaskForceon"ImprovingMechanismfortheConstructionandManagementofSmallWaterConservancyWorks",ResearchDepartmentofForeignEconomicRelationsofDRCResearchReportNo95,Five-YearPlanperiod,,theconstructionofwaterconservancyworksscalednewheights,,,thesmallwaterconserv,ilitiesforthecontinuousconstructionoflargeirrigatedareasandtransformedthesupportingandwater-savinrrigatedareabyanaccumulativetotalof50millionmu,improvedanirrigatedareaof190millionmu,increasedthewater-savingirrigationareaby85millionmuandraisedtheefctively75%and90%ofthenationaltota’,municipalitiesandautonomousregions,theabsoluteamountofwaterconservancyinvestmentsmadebyvariouslocalitiesinrecent5yearshasincreasedsubstantiallyinyearsrunning,andsuchinvestmentshavebeenmainlymadeinfarmlandirrigation,consolidationofdangerousreservoirs,landreclamation,,sincethe11thFive-YearPlanperiod,yworksinSichuanprovince,makingup14%,theinvestmentbythecentralgovernmentamountedto755millio,%%icesystem,theinvestmentintheconstructio,theinvestmentintheconstructionofwaterconservancyworksatvariouslevelsaddeduptoonly67millionyuaninJiangsu,ofwhichtheinvestmentbythecentralgovernmentaccountedfor10millionyuan,theinvestmentbytheprovincialgovernmentaccountedfor10billionyuan,,theinvestmentbythecountygovernmentsaccountedfor43millionyuanandtheself-raisedfundsfromthefarmersamountedto42millionyuan,makingup62%,bytakingtheestablishmentofkeycountiesfortheconstructionofsmallwaterconservancyworksastheturningpoint,theJiangsuprovincialgovernmenthasintensifieditsfinancialinvestmentefforts,adjusteditsinvestmentstructureandchangedthefarmer-labor-orientedconstructionofsmallwaterconservancyworksinthepasttothepresentconstructionbasedmainlyonpublicinvestment,,cyworksinJiangsu,being27timesthatin2005,ofwhichtheinvestmentbythecentralgovernmentreached376millionyuan,makingup21%,theinvestmentbytheprovincialgovernmentreached674millionyuan,makingup37%,theinvestmentbybothmunicipalandcountygovernmentsreached717millionyuan,makingup39%,%mentpatterntakesitsinitialshapeAccordingtothesurveymadebytheresearchgroup,duringthe11thFive-yearPlanperiod,ofthewaterconservancyinvestmentsin6provinces,municipalitiesandautonomousregionsincludingChongqing,Jiangxi,Hubei,Anhui,GansuandInnerMongolia,%,%,%andt%.Inrecentyears,withthewideningcoverageofpublicfinanceinruralareas,thecentralgovernmenthasevidentlyincreaseditsinvestmentintheconstructionofsmallwaterconservancyworks,,thecentralgovernmentsetupaspecialsubsidyfundfortheconstructionofs~2010,,,sincethelaunchingofinvestmentprojectbythecentralgovernmentfortheconstructionofsmallwaterconservancyworks,,theareaofincreasedandrestoredeffectiveirrigatedlandshasreachedmorethan52millionmu,morethan59millionmuofeffectiveirrigatedareashavebeenrecla,mallwaterconservancyworks,ofwhichtheinvestmentbythecentralgovernmentamountedto378millionyuan,theinvestmentbytheprovincialgovernmentamountedto262millionyuan,theinvestmentbymunicipalandcountygovernmentsamountedto67milliony,atotalof803millionyuanofinvestmentwasmadefortheconstructionofsmallwaterconservancyworksinHubei,ofwhichtheinvestmentbythecentralgovernmentreached321millionyuan,theinvestmentbytheprovincialgovernmentreached168millionyuan,theinvestmentbymunicipalandcountygovernmentsreached84millionyuanandthefarmers’self-raisedfundspaidbylaborreached230millionyuan;andt,37countiesinHubeihavebeenplacedamongthekeycountiesnationwidefortheconstructionofsmallwaterconservancyworks,withtheinvestmentbyvariouskindsofmajorunitstotalingmorethan1billionyuan,ofwhich42%,duringthe11thFive-YearPlanperiod,theWaterConservancyDepartment,theDepartmentofLandResources,thePovertyAlleviationDepartmentandtheDepartmentforComprehensiveAgriculturalDevelo,%,,,,apatternofinvestmentforsmallwaterconservancyworkshasnowtakeninitialshapeinvariouslocalities,withcentralgovernmentspendingholdingadominantpositionandotherspendingundertakenbygovernmentsatvariouslevelsandwiththeparticipationbyallrelevantdepartments.BySunZhiyan,ResearchTeamon"PromotingReforminKeyAreasofEconomicSystem",DepartmentofDevelopmentStrategyandRegionalEconomyofDRCResearchReportNo125,2013(Total4374)Sincereformandopeningup,whilestimulatinglocalgovernmentstodeveloptheireconomies,theinter-governmentrelations,whichhavebeenformedonthebasisofseparationofpowers,havewitnessedanintensifiedpursuitofinterestsbetweenthecentralgovernmentandthelocalgovernmentsaswellasamonglocalgovernments,whichhavetriggeredoffanarrayofproblems,suchastheviciouscompetitionamonglocalgovernments,thedifficultyinbringingcentralgovernmentpoliciesintoeffect,marketblockade,barriersbetweendifferentdepartmentsandregionsandlowadministrativeefficiency,whicharebecomingmajorfac,itisimperativetoexpeditetherelatedreformsinoptimizingtherelationsbetweengovernmentpowersandresponsibilitiesandtoreinforcethestandaibilitiesinChinaTheallocationofpowersandresponsibilitiesamongthegovernmentsreferstohowgovernmentsatalllevelsallocateandexercisediffvernance,vernmentsatalllevels,,smodernizationprocess,tyisnotadheredtoandiftheCentralGovernmentfailstoeffectivelyrestrainlocalgovernmentsfromproperlyexercisingpublicpowers,theregionalcontradictionsmightbecomesharpenedandtheuniformmarketmightbedisrupted,whichwillendangernationalunity..Hence,inthenewerawhenChinasinter-governmentpower-responsibilityrelationsarebeingoptimized,weshouldfirstlyadheretotheprincipleofpoliticalunity,safeguardtheauthorityoftheCentralGovern,theprin,withthedeep-goingimplementationofthescientificapproachondevelopment,governmentsatalllevels,localgovernmentsexorbitantpursuitofeconomicgrowthhasnotyetbeenturnedaroundinaneffectiveway,andtheimbalancebetwe,weshouldstilllaystressontheprincipleof"balancingthedevelopmentguidanceandprovisionofpublicservices".Thatistosay,ineconomicdevelopmentactivities,localgovernmentsshouldturnfrom"directmanagement"to"indirectgovernancethroughregulations",andfrom"directparticipation"to"scientificguidanceandoverallplanning".Localgovernmentsshouldputmorepublicresourcesintosocialmanagementandpublicservicesectors,paymoreattentiontosocialjustice,offermoresuperiorservicestocitizens,andconstantlyimprovetheirabilitytorespondtocitizensseconomicdevelopmentmodeandsocialtransformation,anditconstitutesanindispensablebasisforconstructingservice-orientedgovernmentsaimedatmeetingpeople,theprincipleofuticles(services)andthedistributionfeatures,possibleeffortsshouldbemadetoputthescopeofresponsibilitiesundertakenbythegovernmentsandthescopeofbenefitforpublicproducts(services)providedbythegovernmentsinconsistencywitht,suchasfirefightingandmunicipalfacilitiesinaregion,eaterspatialspillover,,,bigorsmall,is,riouslevelsisinesstmechanismandprovisionofpublicservices,thelowesttransactio(services)providedcansatisfythelowestpaymentcostandbringaboutthemaximumbenefit,thesepublicarticles(services)shouldbeprovidedasmuchaspossiblebylocalgovernmentsatlowerlevels,whichfavor,theCentralGovernmentandlocalgovernmentsshouldoptimizetheirrelationsrelatedinnlinewiththeobjectiverequirementsforeconomicandsocialtransformationanddevelopment,weshouldtaketherationalizationofresponsibilitiesinfinancialexpenditurebetweentheCentralGovernmentandlocalgovernmentsasastartingpoint,andtheestablishmentofstandardizedgovernmentfiscalequilibriumsystemasaguaranteeand,meanwhile,weshouldexpeditethestantheCentralGovernmentandLocalGovernmentsintheNewEraTheoptimizationandreadjustmentofthepowerandresponsibilityrelationsbetweenthecentralgovernmentandlocalgovernmentsisasystematicengineeringthatrelatestothesupportingreformsofthepoliticalsystem,administrativemanagementsystemandtheeconomicmanagemenransformationandthenationaleconomicdevelopmentstrategy,theprioritytasksshouldbehighlightedinthreeaspectsoftheoptimizationandreadjustmentoftherelationsbetweenthecentralgovernmentandlocalgovernments:Firstly,weshouldreformtheregionalanddepartmentalnalfunctions,makingitdifficulttoimprovetheadministrativeefficiency,butitalsoleads,breakoffthechainsofvestedinterestsformedverticallywithfunctionaldepartmentsastheprincipalpart,andthehorizontalregionalseparationaswell,facilitatethesubstantivechangeofgovernmentfunctions,and,weshouldclarifythepowersancandsocialdevelopment,weshouldsortoutprioritiesandadvancebystagesthein-depthclarificationofthepowersandresponsibilitiesofgovernmentsatalllevelsintermsofeconomicadjustment,publicservices,,prohibittherentseekingforpowersandvirtualizingofresponsibilitiesstrictlyaccordingtolaw,soastoimprovethee,weshouldstrengthenthestandardizedandsystematizedconstructionofthepowerandresponson,weshouldmaintaintheauthorityofthecentralgovernmentandshouldaswellprovideanecessarysystemspaceforlocalgovernmentsovernanceandprovisionofpublicservicesandshouldaswelleffectivelystandardizeandrestrainthebehaviorsofthelocalglityallocationunderarigorouslawsystemframeworktoavoidthenon-systematiccompetitionamonggovernmentsindifferentregionsandatvariouslevels,torealizetheimpartialityinallocatingpublicresourcesamongdifferentgovernments,andtoputanendtothedisorderlycompetition,theunfaircompetitionandthepolicycompetitionsoastoadvancethesubstantivechangeofgovernmentfunctions.,(HEVs)aredevelopingunevenlyandtheproducttechnologiesarebackwardinallaspectsInChina,theHEVtechnologieshavebeenconscommercialHEVtechnologieshavedevelopedrapidly,yetthepas,theparallelandengineidlingstart-stopcontrolsystemhasbeenadoptedmostlyforChinaspassengerHEVs,yetChinahastomakeeffortstofillinthegapsinthefieldsofpower-splithybridelectricvehicle(PSHEV)technology,,ChinaspassengerHEVscansavefuelby15%~20%.Chinahasmainlyconcentrat,,thefirstperiodwillbefocusedonseriesandparallelconnection,andcurrentlythet(PHEV)areundergoingresearchanddevelopmentonthewholeSuchautovarietiesarefewandfarbetween,themanufacturersofpassengerPHEVsonthebulletinboardareBYD,FAWandGeely,,theun,whicharedividedintopureEVsandHEVs,areaPHEVm,China,theweightofF3DMhas,,althoughF3DMconsumessimilaramountoffuelasPlug-inPriusdoes,(EV)hasbecomeaprioritymodelfortheChinesefinishedautoenterprisesintheirHEVresearchanddevelopmentChinahas,inthemain,masteredsuchkeytechnologiesasvehiclecontrol,matchingofpowersystemandintegrateddesigning,andhassteppedonthewholefroms,Chinahasputforth49typesofpurepas,themajorfinishedautoenterpriseshaveallbroughtelectricvehicles,Dongfeng,Changan,Chery,GeelyandGreatWallhavealldevelopedthroughresearchpureelectriccars,yetelectricvehiclesofhighperformancearestilllaggingbehinda,intermsoffinishedproduct,brand-newmodelsareseenabroad,,lithiumironphosphatebatteriesaremainlyusedinChina,,therearestillhugegapsbetweenChina-madevehiclesandthosemadeabroadintermsofreliability(failurerate),iencingresearch,developmentandtestTheresearchanddevelopmentofthetechnicalplatformforfuelcellvehicled,progresshasbeenmadeinfuelcellautotechnologieswhicharestillundergoingresearch,sfuelcellautotechnologiesandadvancedworldlevelsintermsofsuchkeyindicatorsascoldstarttemperature,lifespan,,yetbreakthroughshavenotbeencompletelymadeinkeytechnologiesChinahasindependentlydevelopedMHandLithium-Ionautopowercellsof6amperehoursto100amperehours,withsuchkeyins,yettheengineeringability,grouptechnology,lifespan,reliability,charge-dischargeability,energymanagementandheatmanagementoftheproducts,especiallyofthegroupproductsystem(batterypack),breakthroughshavenotbeenthoroughlymadeinthemembranetechnologyandthePE-AL-PPtechnologyforpowercells,thusresultinginsmallproductionscaleandpoorstabilityandconsistencyofproductbatches,haspositiveandnegativeelectrodesandelectrolyte,andsuchma,sandthedevelopmentofpassengerHEVslagsbehindAsoftheendof2011,theoutputofChinasHEVshadachievedanaccumulativetotalof16,,enormousprogresshasbeenmadeintheindustrializationofcommercialHEVs,whichisreflectedbytheenrichednumberofvehiclemodels,steadilygrowingoutput,escalationofcommercializationbyawidemargi,thention,Chinahadmanufacturedanaccumulativetotalof9,,then%,thenumberofpassengerHEVsmadebyGMaccountedfor19%,thenumber,andmassproductionofthepassengerHEVswasstartedbySAICMotorCorp,DongfengMotorGroupandZhejiang,ChinauchtransnationalcorporationsasToyota,GMandVolkswagen,thereisapressingneedtoindustrializeChinasindependenentTheindustrializationofpureHEVshasjuststartedandtheoutputofpurepassengerHEVshasreachedamaximumaccumulativetotal,andsuchHEVs,Chinahadproducedanaccumulativetotalof4,,AnhuiChery,JAC,JiangnanAutomobileandBYDhadmanufacturedanaccumulativetotalof2370,592,,BYDandNingboShenmahadproducedanaccumulativetotalof347,,enterprisesannouncedfortheproductionofplug-inpassengerHEVsareonlyBYD,FAWandGeely,whileSAIC,BAIerautomanufacturerssuchasWuzhoulongMotors,ZhongTongBus,Ankai,,asoftheendof2011,atotalof20,,therehasbeenfewerstarandmainmodelsamongpureHEVsandplug-inHEVsinChina,skeyautoenterprisestobeincreasedinpureandplug-inHEVsinthefuture,itispredictedthatindustrializationprocesswillbecomeaccelerated.

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